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INFORMATIONS ABOUT ENVIRONMENT

FOREWORD 
 
A/-DEFINITION: What is the environment? According to the Larousse dictionary, environment is everything around us.The environment is also all natural and cultural conditions that affect living beings and human activities. 
 
B/-THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS THAT CONSTITUTE THE ENVIRONMENT: Living beings, earth, water, 
air and biodiversity. 
Man, the living being inhabiting the earth is superior to other living beings on earth, because he has intelligence and is able to think, reason and act. He is also capable of manage and protect the property entrusted to him or what he has got.But how can he manage his entourage? Because that entourage which is the environment is the set of consists of elements like air, water,biodiversity earth,living beings .... 
 
C/-INTRODUCTION: The entourage of everything around us is environment can be well managed, well protected if we humans can take only the commitment and can act.Our environment requires a commitment from all to flourish. The essential elements of environment (water, air, earth ...) are degraded or we can say the environment is degraded because we see: pollution, climate change , waste, erosion, flooding...leading our planet to many socioeconomic difficulties that block the development.Many conferences, seminars and meetings take place around the world for the problems concerning environment.Nous are went to COP15 in Denmark to take action on the issue of gas that affects the climate of our planet. we believe there will be yet another "COP", can be COP16 and COP17...That is to say ,the world is moving for issues related to the environment. Children, youth and adults together take decisions 
to move towards a sustainable development through awareness, education and actions.Cries of alarm being raised to denounce and worry about environmental degradation in all areas.NGOs and worldwide associations struggling for environment and including AFEYD(Association For Environment and Youth Development) are conducting campaigns and activities for a healthy and sustainable environment. 
Our vast lands are dressed in biodiversity-rich forest colossal, fine climate, breathtaking hill, rivers lovely, earthen greens and a host of other environmental beauties. Each resource has a natural economic value of cultural, biological should be highlighted. This recovery should help improve the living conditions of populations. But unfortunately our continents are now facing to a decreasing biodiversity, with less forest, climate change, erosion of coasts, rivers polluted, increasing desertification, extreme poverty and other forms of development degradation.The sustainable development can only be achieved if the world's nations seek to resolve problems that cause environmental damage to human and animal health,in economic,in agricultural production because ... everything that we inflict on the environment we inflict it on ourselves. 
 
-In Congo - Brazzaville: With 342000km2 of area, the environment of Congo-Brazzaville needs a special attention of all Congolese and NGOs around the world which can help us to work, to put projects in place... which can help the environment. Although the government tries to take measures to reduce the effects of environmental degradation but needs the support of each other, local NGOs or international because to give the best of yourselves to someone is helping him to become himself.We AFEYD, we wait for your feedback, please contact us.  
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For every young person:a healthy and sustainable environment 
 
-CLIMATE CHANGE: 
In several African countries,it rains suddenly or slowly.Sometimes it does not rain at all.In CONGO Brazzaville,the country has a bimodal rainfall pattern,which is called:"barns rainy season" which covers the months from September to November which is suspended from December to February by the short dry season.Rains resumed from March to May (early rainy season) and run from June to August during the long day season. This period is marked by a low sun due to a gray cloud covered almost permanent.This succession of rain has a significant influence on plant phenology and feeding behavior and reproduction of animals.But because the climate change affects the world, in CONGO Brazzaville too ,the rainy season has changed,it is increasingly hot and cold,very dry...So that means,countries around the world are all affected by the climate variability that occurs for several reasons: the atmospheric winds,the weather changes.In addition to these natural events,activities undertaken by humans such as: deforestation and poor land management directly influence the weather. 
Do you remember the floods which have caused immense damage in some countries of the world? Do you remember the droughts that have led to widespread misery? Such changes come from higher average temperatures caused by increased greenhouse gas emissions(GHG) in the atmosphere.Carbon dioxide,the most dangerous greenhouse gas emissions is released during consumption of fossil fuels.The methale and chlorofluorocarbors(CFCs),are part of greenhouse gas emission.They are produced from various sources: factory smoke,the exhaust from vehicles,power generation and forest fires. 
Climate change may affect any country in the world,can also affect our forests and our biodiversity.Many plant and animal species are endangered,our homes are damaged ,this change could also affect our health,lead to outbreaks of malaria and yellow fever.The quality of the air we breathe may be seriously polluted,for example: to live in a great city.The vehicle emissions such as carbon monoxide,benzene and lead have a direct and devastating effect on the environment.In some countries,the urbanization rate highest affects air quality.Air pollution is increased by the density of urban populations and increased industrial activities.Pollution can seriously affect our health.Exposure to toxic emissions is associated with respiratory infections,lung diseases like asthma,chronic bronchitis,lung cancer and issues related to pregancy.Although Africa contributes very little to the greenhouse gas emissions,it remains vulnarable to the impacts of climate change because it depends heavily on agriculture. 
So,we must be united to struggle the climate change,our leaders must act as quickly as possible by implementing appropriate measure such as the pinciple of polluter paying,principle which calls almonds to the companies that exceed a certain rate of emission.They should also create laws and implement them to reduce emissions of toxic gases.As far as we are concern,as NGO, we urge the world to use renewable energy resources like hydropower,solar,wind. 
Our planet needs us, unity is strength to fight climate change. 
Planting trees is the most popular way to fight against air pollution, trees absorb carbon dioxide, provide shade and coolness in the towns and villages, preventing soil erosion, enable the manufacture of wood products, home of fauna and flora, purify water and make the beautify of landscape. 
All we must participate to the campaign of planting trees which aims to see a tree planted by every human being. 
 
< NOW LET'S TALK ABOUT OUR NATURAL RESOURCES > 
 
I/-BIODIVERSITY: 
The beauty of our continents is in its rich biodiversity. That Biodiversity is the variety of plants and animals living in our ecosystems which is characterized by: 
-the abundance of species 
-species diversity 
-the endemism (the fact that each species is 
unique in our continents). 
Global biodiversity is under threat, this threat in Africa and in the country like CONGO-Brazzaville is due to some factors: loss of species by poaching,death due to disease,by illegal hunting for food and trade.The use and trade of medicinal plants, forgetting that a good sustainable management of these resources requires that the sampling is below the cost natural.In Congo-Brazzaville: Although the country has established protected areas but few resources to manage these areas efficiently.The national natural resources are still threatened and oil facilities also threaten the coastal and marine environments. 
1/-La safeguard of biodiversity:  
The world community is faced with the objectives to mitigate the loss of biodiversity, reducing poverty until 2015. The safeguarding of biodiversity is possible if the distribution of costs is fairly.It is also possible, if the sustainable management of resources is doing to certain conditions: the legitimacy of the character <> of the resource, << right holders >>. Such rules have historically existed in rural societies .For example in WEST Africa ,the Sahielien well is the property of pastors lineage who have dug it, it still accepts a herd crossing but defines the number of days skills can create ,may stay with the state of the resource in the pasture available to from the well.In the seas, fishing is often reserved for personal consumption, outside the main low-water fisheries organized by the masters of water, the collect of fruits is regulated.Nevertheless, these resources can be fragile by social change, the arrival of new persons who do not respect these rules. 
We NGOs, are invited to raise awareness of the world to well manage the biodiversity of our continent to find lasting solutions to halt the loss of species. 
 
2/-Sustainable conservation of biodiversity: 
Every country in the world has a culture of conservation of its heritage.The native countries have also used and use their knowledge to manage their natural resources.We must have knowledge and strategies to conserve our biodiversity so that it no longer disappearing. Programs of preservation and conservation of biodiversity should take place in our continents.The youth is ready to work in these programs to reduce unemployment.In Congo Brazzaville,AFEYD make a << SOS>> for assistance to other structures and NGOs to assist us in these conservation and preservation programs or needs a training for these programs in order to work in these programs to avoid conflicts between humans, wildlife, flora and aquatic species. 
 
 
II/-FORESTS: 
Forests play an important and vital role in human survival and are a source of habitat for species animals.Now the deforestation of tropical regions is caused by the destruction of forests for agriculture and over-exploitation of forests by companies who trade the wood and by governments.That valuable resource is quickly squandered as a result of poor management or a complete lack of management.The woods and forests are ecosystems that have ecological, economic and social remarkable.They great help to mitigate climate change inhaling the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Plus, you cut down the trees, less it will rain.The deforestation can also lead to severe droughts, especially in areas most vulnerable to the dry periods .The forests are the guardians of land, they protect it from erosion and contribute to its fertility by the balance of nutrients substances in the air, water and in land.The forests do control cycles of droughts and floods in the rivers,we can say: the forests have the control on environment.At the beginning of the century, our planet had 15 to 16 million km2 of tropical forest.Today, there are only 9 millions.Each year, between 7.6 and 10 million hectares were destroyed and 10 million hectares suffer of important damage.In CONGO Brazzaville,the Congolese natural forest covers 22 million hectares and represents 10 per cent of closed forests in Africa and covers 65 percent of the country.The commercial exploitation logging can severely damage forests, wildlife and flora of CONGO.Over 20 million of unprotected forest hectares has been allocated to forest companies.The activities as exploitation of wood for timber, collection of firewood to coal and sale are realizing.The Mayombe forest is the largest and longest of Africa suffer disturbance by local people and yet it maintains species and people in food, shelter medicine,medical natural and in water because the company EAU MAYO derives natural Water in the Mayombe forest.The woods and forests are also intended to the cultural ,religious spirituals use.The commercial exploitation of woods and forest moderately does create one important source of income, foreign exchange and jobs. Forests deforestation needs attention and immediate action, according to the economic,social, cultural and environmental values because in destroying them, we withdraw our children, young people and future generations the opportunity to use the gifts of nature to create new techniques ,to produce new crops and to invent new drugs. 
1/-Coverage and quality of forests: 
Africa has the highest rate of forestation in World .In Congo Brazzaville this rate reached 25 percent because the trees are often felled for firewood, the coal, for energy production, for farms and cities humans.We must maintain our forests in life ,that's good.But how? Because we must eat and feed to survive and to eat we must cook aliments.The rural populations often use firewood, lack access to electricity, gas.That situation is identical in my hometown where i was born called Madzia (60km)to the south of Brazzaville. 
 
2/-Sustainable management of forests and woods: 
Sustainable development forest is hindered by: low-commitment policies, inappropriate measures, the forest departments poorly funded, poorly arrangements financial managed, the failure of international authorities to support financially the campaigns of safeguarding, preservation and conservation.We, AFEYD are ready to work to sustain our forests, but the material and financial means are lacking us to achieve sustainable management of our forests.With the project of: 100 trees each 6 months of AFEYD, we believe reducing the rate of deforestation in Congo Brazzaville by the planting of trees. Finally: Our continent can become green through reforestation, maintenance, protection and preservation.Put in place methods of necessary consumption for our needs.  
 
III/-WATER: 
water is life,we often said it. Yes!Therefore in China, They celebrate the feast of the water. Water is a natural resource,vital and indispensable. When we want to eat, to be clean, to save a life, we need water. The man, wildlife, plants also need water, including our forests and our land. It is the solution to certain problems of life. The question is: Have you ever wondered where the water you use at home from? 
In Congo, water comes from different rivers in the country. For example, in Brazzaville, water is drawn from rivers Djiri (in the north), Djoué ( in the south) by SNDE (The National Society of Water Distribution ). In Pointe Noire, water is drawn into the river Kouilou ,at Dolisie water is drawn in by the Niari river by SNDE, and excluding small springs, streams and other rivers that exist in the country which supply the Congolese population. In areas where the population has no access to Water of SNDE,they use water from wells, other people draw their water from wells, streams ... Some people use rainwater. But unfortunately all these waters (wells, streams, wells, rain) are not treated. 
 
1/-The water quality 
The quality of water we drink or use depends from a country to another, from one area to another. The environmental degradation resulting shortages, does cause an impact of water quality, can also contribute to the reduction of biodiversity. 
In Brazzaville (Congo): the quality of water we drink is not fully treated well by SNDE ,the distribution company of water. The SNDE must review its facilities and water distribution. With iron pipes aging ,water becomes dirty or sometimes changes color. There are certain neighborhoods of Brazzaville Neighborhoods such as:Mpissa,Plateaux des 15 ans... water is very difficult, however Brazzaville is surrounded by 2 large rivers (Djiri and Djoué in the north and south) and the great Congo River to the east of the city (the 2nd powerful world after Amazon). The quality of drinking water has so astonished the people, those who are rich have built private factories to produce drinking water that they sell ... we ask why these wealthy men did not invest or not invest to build the facilities to the SNDE so that each inhabitant of the Congo uses the water of this? Each household of Congo living in low cost is not able to buy water from these societies by lack of the financial means. They prefer to drink water from the SNDE not entirely well-treated and many diseases they watch and wait them. Why this lack of water,is because the quantity of water to distribute daily is little or perhaps because of technical failures? There are some NGO and individuals of good will of the Congo have tried or are trying to donate drilling water to the population. But unfortunately the waters of these wells are not treated, not accessible to drink just for domestic use. Example: the photo below, a drilling area Mpissa (Brazzaville). The Donors of the drilling well have written: "Be careful that water is not treated." See also this well water district Kinsoundi (Brazzaville) See uour Albumphoto to see photos about Water. 
What AFEYD wants: 
-the water be accessible to all 
-the rich or the poor have the opportunity to drink the same water treated drinking 
-The water drilling is also treated for oral consumption in case of shortage 
-the Congolese state provides resources to SNDE to enhance its facilities, its production, processing and distribution so that each quarter of Brazzaville and other cities have access to treated water supplies. 
With its drilling project in treated water, the AFEYD give hope to the people of Congo and from areas of drought. We appeal to those who can support us in the construction of drilling in CONGO. write us so that we work together to the project ,you can give us ideas to fight the battle of the water CONGO. 
 
2/-The pollution of water 
water, this natural resource is threatened by pollution of all kinds and all makes, e.g: toxic waste dumped into the seas, rivers which poison the waters. The fuel on the water surface ... 
-In Kenya: the tributary from black tea factories are poisoning rivers, 271 fish die from pollution. 
-In Côte d'Ivoire: waste dumped in the ocean has an impact on the health of populations and fish. Lake Ebrie is affected by the effects of waste. 
Pollution of water sources of damage is irreversible. 
3/-The rising level of sea  
As the oceans will advance to the inland salt water contaminate freshwater aquifers that supply water to households, agriculture and industry will be affected and may contribute to transmission of infectious diseases following flooding of sewerage and sanitation. Rising sea level causing flooding in some areas the most populated of the planet, the lost forest, biodiversity, homes in some islands of our planet. 
 
4/-The freshwater 
Drinking water is still inaccessible to many people. Those who have easy access to water make no effort to use it properly. So what? 
Follow-African vision of water to strengthen the governance of water resources to improve knowledge on issues related to water, contribute to financial resources for development and management of water now and in the future. 
-finance NGO wishing to work in the problems related to water 
-use water sparingly, responsibly.  
 
IV/-ENERGY 
The word "energy" gives many definitions and explanations by class type of energy we that use.For example: 
-the man ,living being has got an energy 
-other living species also possess an energy. 
This category of energy is the lifeblood that allows species living to live.There is the question: what is a man, an animal, a tree without energy? Nothing, absolutely nothing. 
-There is also electrical energy product though a hydroelectric dam, through a generator or through new technologies using the sun, air and other substances. 
 
I-/LET'S TALK ABOUT ELECTRICAL ENERGY 
 
V/-LANDS 
Our lands are full of valuable resources. They are economic development, social and environmental impact of our countries, continents. For example, Africa is the second largest region in the world with 20 percent of the surface of the planet (2,963,313,000 hectares). African countries look after their land by activities such as: agriculture The planting of trees ... for the provision of food, economic output ... 
In Congo Brazzaville: access to land remains uncertain unpredictable. Only 2 percent of arable land is cultivated by lack of funds and materials. Despite its vast agricultural potential, Congo imports its food. The environmental degradation has greatly impoverishes the rich earth by a kind of infection found in food crops. A study is about to be conducted by NGO and some local institutions for effective strategies for good farming 
In Brazzaville, the problem of erosion is multiplied from day to day because the earth is more stabilized by lack of effective conduit to allow rainwater to flow freely ,the government no longer provides effective to support certain areas of the city being eroded. Example: Look at this house 
 
 
 
 
 
While trying to combat the erosion problem in the city, the population is doing in erosion by some gesture of goodwill to prevent erosion by placing tires, bags filled with sand or earth, or planting trees. And roads where its activities such passage becomes payable that is to say to pass it must encourage the workers of goodwill by giving a few coins. And this phenomenon has become very common in the streets of Brazzaville erosion. That is to say Brazzaville is devastated by the erosion problem that becomes everyone's business. While the main activities to stabilize the earth in Congo are: 
-the tree planting, agriculture, sanitation. 
Note : **** < We must all refuse to partner with industries that use our land to dump their toxic chemical waste >**** 
 
VI/-AIR 
-The air pollution 
All countries of the world suffer from air pollution in one way or another: the smoke from factories, cars ... The developed countries emit high levels of their gas, developing countries consume the odor of garbage, garbage ... 
In Brazzaville (Congo): the smoke of old cars , the smell deposits garbage, clogged drains pollutes the air to breathe, causing diseases to people. AFEYD said the Congo or our countries should not be a dumping ground for old vehicles, aged emitting harmful gases into the atmosphere. Vehicles older, aging can be reused if they are recycled and do not emit harmful gases for proper protection of the atmosphere. 
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For every young person: a healthy and sustainable environment 
 
-SANITATION, HYGIENE 
The problem of sanitation varies from one country to another, from one city to another and from one continent to another. 
In-CONGO: access to basic sanitation is very limited in urban and rural. The majority of people in rural areas have no toilets and go in the savannas and forests to their hygienic needs. 
In Brazzaville, a study conducted by the Ministry of Health noted that: 15 percent of households had septic tanks, 28 per cent of toilets and 42 percent of traditional latrines. 20 per cent of the households visited had no toilets, latrines and septic tanks. In the city there is a lack of public toilets and the people made her hygienic needs anywhere, or sometimes in uninhabited places, unhealthy ... 
The garbage collection is a prejudice in Brazzaville. Household waste is dumped in the streets, in ravines, in the streams and pollute the water causing diseases, certain wastes are disposed of in landfills Street. The company Pro Brazza, who is responsible for the cleanliness of the city is trying to make efforts to make the city clean in some areas and places of the city of Brazzaville, but neglects other areas and districts of the city for garbage and waste as plastic bags are not disposed of in appropriate places. The gutters are clogged. Some wastes or solid plastics are burned and smells have consequences for the air to breathe, causing disease and climate change. Lack of recycling center for waste and household garbage in Brazzaville pushes people to act as it seems. That is to say it's his job to Brazzaville on sanitation and hygiene. Look at those photos above, think and imagine. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
AFEYD appeals to NGO, investors, donors who can support us in our project to create a recycling center for waste should not hesitate to write us to work together and clean Brazzaville to support the government waste management to preserve the environment. 
 
CONCLUSION 
Finally: the global environment is threatened in all forms. We must all unite to reverse environmental degradation through activities, exchanges of ideas, projects ... 
The environment in Congo Brazzaville requires a commitment of all to blossom. You are NGO, investors ... come join us to make some projects together with AFEYD education, health, water ... to help the environment in the Congo. Your ideas, comments, messages, suggestions and even your donations or help us.  
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For every young person: a healthy and sustainable environment 
 

 

(c) Association Pour l'Environnement et Developpement de la Jeunesse (APEDJ) / Association For Environment and Youth Development (AFEYD) - Made with the help of Populus.org.
Last modified on 28.03.2010
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